Engelsk gramatik

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                                                     Part of speech

 

Nouns

 

a)      Names of different objects ex. table

b)      Names of persons and places ex. Eve, Barcelona or Sweden

c)      Name of materials, concrete or something describing a condition or emotion. Ex. water, paper, happiness, fear

d)      Name of species or special events ex. human, summer break.

 

We can usually divide nouns into two different groups.

-          Concrete nouns, ex. a desk

-          Abstract nouns, ex love

 

If you can say one, two or some before the word it is probably a noun.

 

Plural noun in the regular form

 

a)      One boy                  Two boys

b)      One bush                Two bushes

c)      One family              Two families

d)      One potato             Two potatoes

 

Irregular noun in plural form

 

a)      Nouns ending with -f or -fe changes to -ves when you use plural form.
One wolf                 Two wolves
One wife                 Two wives

b)      Sometimes there is a vowel change.
One man                 Two men
One foot                 Two feet
One woman            Two women

c)      Sometimes there is no change at all.
One sheep              Two sheep
One fish                  Two fish

 

Uncountable nouns

When we can’t say a or an in front of a word it is uncountable instead we say “a something of” ex.

-          A piece of news

-          A bottle of water

-          A grain of rice

We usually treat uncountable nouns in the singular form, ex.

-          This news is very important.

 

You can often choose if you want to use a countable or an uncountable noun, ex.

 

Countable                           Uncountable

Song                                                          Music
Bottle                                                        Water

Job                                                            Work

 

Possessive nouns

When we want to show that something belongs to someone or something we use the possessive form. We must separate the animarte things (living things) and the inanimate things (nonliving things).

 

a)      When we want to show that some animate thing owns something in singular form we usually add an apostrophe + s (...’s). When there is a plural noun we usually add an apostrophe (...’) ex.

Reg.                                                          Irr.

One boy’s ball                                          One child’s ball

Two boys’ ball                                          Two children’s ball

 

Notice! There is only a change when there is a regular noun in plural form.

 

b)      When we want to show that something belongs to an inanimate thing we use something that is called “The of construction”.

-          The roof of  the house.

 

Exceptions!

When we are talking about time and distance we treat them as an animate thing.

-          Yesterday I had eight hours’ sleep.

-          In today’s newspaper I read about....

When we want to use names in the possessive form we usually write like this:

-          Gabriel’s

But when the name ends with S we skip the extra S after the apostrophe

-          Charles’

 

 

Articles

 

The articles a, an and the are sometimes confusing because we don’t know where we are supposed to use them. Articles are always in the beginning of a noun phrase. We divide them into indefinite and definite articles.

 

a)      The indefinite articles is a/an and we use this form when we talk about something in general but ONLY with nouns which are countable and in singular (look on page 2), ex.

-          a song

-          a bottle

-          a job

 

If we try the same with an uncountable noun it doesn’t work.

-          a music

-          a water

-          a work

 

b)      The definite article is the and we use it when we are talking about something in particular with all nouns ex.

 

Countable                           Uncountable

the song                              the music
the bottle                            the water

the job                                                      the work

 

Here are some more examples and remember that the indefinite form (a/an) is when we talk about something in general more in general and the definite form (the) is when we want to be specific.

 

a/an                                                                                                                           the

I want to buy a bottle of water.                                     I’m thirsty, where is the bottle of water?

 

I had an omelette for breakfast.                                   Oh, that omelette smells so good!

 

A or AN

When you are using the indefinite form you have to know when to use each of them. You shall use an when there is a vowel sound of the first letter and a when there is a consonant sound. So it is not just the first letter that counts but the sound of the first letter, ex.

 

Spelling                               Sound

an hour                               an our

a university                         a you-ni-ver-si-ty

 

Adjectives

 

An adjective describes a noun.

 

a)      Describing a noun, ex.

-          A orange bus.

-          A large castle

 

b)      How to compare an adjective

When we use the adjective we can use three different forms.

 

  1. Adjectives with one syllable (-er and -est)

 

Positive                                                     Comparative                                                                  Superlative

cold                                                                                colder                                                                                                   coldest         

warm                                                                              warmer                                                                          warmest

full                                                                                  fuller                                                                                                    fullest

 

  1. Adjectives with two syllables ending with -y, -ow, -le and -er

 

Positive                                                               Comparative                                                                  Superlative

-y                   happy                                                                             happier                                                                           happiest

-ow                narrow                                                                           narrower                                                                        narrowest

-le                  simple                                                                            simpler                                                                           simplest

-er                 clever                                                                             cleverer                                                                          cleverest

 

Spelling changes

 

Positive         Comparative                       Superlative

happy                                  happier                               happiest        change -y to -i

shy                                      shyer                                                         shyest                                  here is -y not changed to -i

simple                                 simpler                               simplest        leave out the silent -e

big                                       bigger                                                       biggest                                double the consonant after short vowel

sad                                      sadder                                                      saddest          double the consonant after short vowel

 

  1. Adjectives with three or more syllables put “more” and “(the) most” in front of the word.

Positive                                                     Comparative                                                                  Superlative
expensive                                                 more expensive                                                             the most expensive

 

 

 

  1. Irregular adjectives have no pattern whatsoever

Uncountable nouns

Positive                                                     Comparative                                                                  Superlative

good                                                                               better                                                                                                   best

bad                                                                                 worse                                                                                                   worst

much                                                                              more                                                                                                    most

 

Countable nouns

Positive                                                     Comparative                                                                  Superlative

many                                                                              more                                                                                                    most

little                                                                                less                                                                                                       least

little                                                                                smaller                                                                                                 smallest

 

Adverb or Adjective?

 

Adjectives describes in what way something is done, ex.

-          She sings wonderfully

 

An adverb is normally constructed through an adjective + ly, ex.

-          Wonderful = Adjective

-          Wonderfully = Adverb

 

Adverbs can describe a:

a)      Verb - She sings wonderfully

b)      Adjective - She has an extremely nice car

c)      Adverb - She sings tremendously wonderfully

 

Spelling changes

When an adverb ends with -y you have to put -ie before the -y, ex.

-          easy                        easily

When an adverb ends with -le after a consonant you have to change it to -ly, ex.

-          horrible                   horribly

 

Exceptions!

After the verbs “feel, look, smell and taste” you need to have an adjective, ex.

-          His shirt smells terrible

Some words have the exact same form in both adjective and adverb, ex.

-          Ge gets up early, eats fast and works very hard

 

 

Sometimes you can choose you want to use the word in adjective or adverb, ex.

 

Adverb                                                                                                                       Adjective

He was usually late                                                                              John was late as usual

Come as soon as you possibly can                                 Come as soon as possible

 

Pronouns

Pronoun is instead of a noun.

 

Personal and reflexive pronouns

 

Personal pronouns                                                                               Reflexive pronouns

Subjective form                  Objective form                                        

I                                                                me                                                            myself

you                                                            you                                                            yourself

he, she, it                            him, her, it                          himself, herself, itself

 

we                                                             us                                                              ourselves

you                                                            you                                                            yourselves

they                                                          them                                                         themselves

 

When the pronoun is the object or is after a preposition we use the objective form of the personal pronoun, ex.

-          Give him the paper

-          He has no money on him

When we use a reflexive pronoun we use it to refers back to the subject in a sentence or when we want to emphasise something, ex.

-          He enjoyed himself

-          He himself did it

 

Possessive pronouns

 

We use the possessive pronoun when we want to show that someone or a group owns something.

Dependent                          Independent

my                                                            mine

your                                                          yours

his, her, its                          his, hers, -

 

our                                                            ours

your                                                          yours

their                                                          theirs

The difference between a dependent and an independent pronoun is that the dependent pronoun need a noun to work which is not the case with the independent, ex.

-          This is my bike

-          This is mine

 

Relative pronouns

 

Subject          Object                                 Possessive

who                                     who(m)         whose

which                                  which                                  whose

that                                     that                                     -

 

We use relative pronouns:

After a noun, when we want to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about, ex.

-          The house that Jack built

To tell us more about a person or a thing, ex.

-          My mother, who was born overseas has always been a great traveller

 

a)      Who is the subject form when we talk about people, ex.

-          There are many people who believe in God

b)      Whom is the object form when we talk about people (more formal), ex.

-          This is the player whom, Tottenham set their hope

c)      Whose is used when we want to show that someone or something owns something (possessive).

-          This is the woman, whose husband was found dead in the bathroom.

d)      Which is used for things, ex.

-          She said she had missed the bus which was quite correct.

e)      That is used for things and people in defining relative clauses.

-          This is the movie that caused such sensation

 

Some more examples:

 

-          The person who/that phoned me last night is my teacher.

-          The person that phoned me last night is my teacher.

 

-          The person whom I phoned last night is my teacher.              

-          The people who I phoned last night are my teachers.

-          The person that I phoned last night is my teacher.               

-          The person I phoned last night is my teacher.

 

-          The student whose phone just rang should stand up.

-          Students whose parents are wealthy pay extra.

 

-          The car which/that I drive is old.                      

-          The car that I drive is old.                                 

-          The car I drive is old.

 

-          The police are looking for the car whose driver was masked.

-          The police are looking for the car of which the driver was masked.

 

-          The car, which was a taxi, exploded.

-          The cars, which were taxis, exploded

 

Interrogative pronouns

 

Interrogative pronouns is only used in questions.

 

Who is the subject form when we ask about people, ex.

-          Who is she?

Whom is the object form when we ask about people (In normal, spoken English we rarely use “whom”. Most native speakers would use “who” instead), ex.

-          To whom did you give that flower?

What is used when we asks about things (when you use “what” there should be no limits of options), ex.

-          What colour is your car?

Which can be used when we ask about people or things (when you use “which” there have to be a limit to the options), ex.

-          Which of the books do you like?

Whose is used only when we ask about a person, ex.

-          Whose car is it?

 

Motsvarigheter till Svenskans “det”

 

I svenskan brukar vi säga “det är” eller “det var” och i engelskan säger vi “there is/are” och “there was/were”, ex.

 

-          Det är kallt ute

-          It is cold outside

 

Om du istället för “det är” kan använda “det finns”, “det ligger” eller “det står” ska det i engelskan vara “there is/are”, ex.

-          Det är en bok på bänken

-          Det ligger en bok på bänken

-          There is a book on the desk.

1. Steg ett är att se om det går att ändra “det är” till ex. “det finns”.

Är svaret nej så ska det oftast vara “it”

 

2. Är svaret ja så är steg två att avgöra om det är i singular eller plural.

 

3. Steg tre är att avgöra vilket tempus som det är.

 

Exempel:

 

1. Det är många barn i skolan

Det “finns” många barn i skolan

 

2. Plural

 

3. Nutid

 

Resultatet är då: There are many children in school

 

TO BE

 

                                            Present          Past

I                                           am/do                                 was/did

you                                      are/do                                 were/did

he, she, it      is/does                                was/did

 

we                                       are/do                                 were/did

you                                      are/do                                 were/did

they                                     are/do                                 were/did

 

 

Some or any?

The words we can use are:

 

Some +                                Any -

some                                                         any

somebody                           anybody

someone                             anyone

something                           anything

 

The word “some” is used in affirmative (positive) sentences and in questions when you expect “yes” as an answer, ex.

-          I have some friends

-          Would you like some coffee?

 

The word “any is used in negative sentences and in questions, ex.

-          I do not have any friends

-          Do you have any friends?

 

Verbs

 

Verbs can describe an action (run) or a state of being (be).

When we work with verbs we need to conjugate it to the right tense so it fits the time we are talking about, this applies both to main verbs and helping verbs.

 

Regular verbs

Infinitive                             Past simple                         Past participle

work                                                         worked                                worked

play                                                           played                                                       played

 

Irregular verbs

Infinitive                             Past simple                         Past participle

catch                                                         caught                                                      caught

put                                                            put                                                            put

go                                                             went                                                         gone

be                                                             was                                                           been

have                                                          had                                                           had

 

                                                                 BE                                                                                   HAVE

                                            Present          Past                                     Present          Past

I                                           am                                      was                                     have                                    had

you                                      are                                      were                                   have                                    had

he, she, it      is                                         was                                     has                                      had

 

we                                       are                                      were                                   have                                    had

you                                      are                                      were                                   have                                    had

they                                     are                                      were                                   have                                    had

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

--- = Subject

--- = Object

--- = Main verb

--- = Helping verb

 

The present tense

 

The progressive tense is telling you what is going on right now or what usually happens, ex.

 

-           Peter  plays the guitar

 

-           Peter can play the guitar

 

-           Peter usually play the guitar on fridays

 

When we use the form third person singular (he, she, it) we add a -s, ex.

-          He plays the guitar

 

When we use the form third person singular (he, she, it) and the verb ends with a -ch sound we add -es instead, ex.

-          He catches the ball

 

Spelling changes!

When a verb ends with -o we add -es, ex.

-          go - goes, do - does

When a verb ends with a consonant + -y it changes to -i and we add -es as usual, ex.

-          marry - marries, try - tries

 

 

The progressive / continuous form

 

The progressive form is also called the -ing form, ex.

-          Be + ing = something ongoing

 

The progressive form is constructed by a form of “be” and a main verb, ex.

-           I am writing a letter

 

The helping verb “be” changes depending on time and person but the main verb has always the same form.

 

 

 

The past tense

 

The past simple expresses an action in the past. It may take place once, never or a several times.

When you use regular verbs you just add -ed to the verb, ex.

-          He visited his parents every weekend

 

When the verb ends with a consonant + y it changes -i, ex.

-          hurry - hurried, carry - carried

 

When the verb ends with -e just add -d and skip the extra -e, ex.

-          love - loved

 

-          admit - admitted, travel - travelled, beg - begged

 

Preposition

Pre = before, position = place

Prepositions usually comes before another word, usually a noun and sometimes a verb. When we use a verb it always in the “ing-form” ex.

-          I am interested  in reading

-          She went out looking for me

 

Prepositions is used to signal where something is, ex.

-          The apple is under the pear

-          The apple is beside the pear

-          The apple is over the pear

 

Prepositions can also be used to signal the time, ex.

-          I fell asleep at 3 o’clock

-          I want to get married in the future

-          I see you on monday

-          I usually eat breakfast in the morning

 

-          I want to go out and run on sunday morning

 

Some common prepositions are:

-          about, above, across, after, against, along, among, around, as, at

 

-          before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, but, by

 

-          concerning, considering, despite, during, except, excepting, excluding

-          following, for, from, in, inside, into, like, near, of, off, on, onto, outside, over

 

-          regarding, round, since, than, through, to, toward, towards

 

-          under, underneath, until, up, upon, with, within, without

 

Word order

 

Subject

Verb

 

  1. “Normal word order” Subject - Verb, ex.

-          Last night we watched TV

  1. “Question word order” Verb - Subject, ex.

-           Did you watch TV yesterday?

  1. “Reversed word order” Verb - Subject, ex.

-          Here comes my dog running

-          Now comes the best part of the movie

 

Word building

 

Affixes are small words that we can put at the beginning (prefix) or at the end of words (suffix) which can change the meaning of the word or change the word to another part of speech.

 

Some common prefixes are:

 

Name                                                        Meaning                                                   Examples

anti                                                           against                                                                            anti-social

auto                                                          self                                                                                 auto-biography

bi                                                              two                                                                                 bi-cycle

co                                                              with                                                                                co-operate

contra                                                       against                                                                           contra-dict

de                                                             remove                                                     de-hydrate

dis                                                             not                                                                                  dis-approve

il                                                               not                                                                                  il-legal

im                                                             not                                                                                  im-mature

inter                                                          between                                                   inter-national

mis                                                            badly/wrongly                                                                mis-understood

multi                                                         many                                                                              multi-national

non                                                           opposite                                                    non-profit

out                                                            more than                                                out-perform

over                                                          too much                                                  over-work

post                                                           after                                                                               post-pone

pre                                                            before                                                                            pre-dict

re                                                              again                                                                              re-use, re-write

sub                                                            under                                                                              sub-marine

super                                                        higher/improved               &nb...

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Progress gold B - Eva Hedencrona, Karin Smed-Gerdin & Peter Watcyn-Jones -- English Grammar Check - Håkan Plith -- Advanced Grammar Check - Håkan Plith -- https://www.engvid.com/ -- https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/ -- Egna anteckningar

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Gabriel van der Eerden [2018-09-11]   Engelsk gramatik
Mimers Brunn [Online]. http://mimersbrunn.se/article?id=60381 [2018-09-25]

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