Aboriginer

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Introduction

I’ve been writing a short essay about the Aborigines in Australia. The first part is about when the Aborigines came to Australia and their traditionally way of living. I’ve also written about how Australia became a European settlement in the end of 1800-century and what happened to the Aborigines during that time. Together with Torres Strait Islanders, Aborigines is counted among the country’s most disadvantaged group, something I’ve also written about in my essay.

Aboriginals

Australians first inhabitants were Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders. It’s widely believed that the Aboriginals people migrated from some unknown point in Asia to Australia between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago. Before the arrival of European settlers, Aboriginals inhabited most areas of the Australian continent, each speaking one or more of hundreds of separate languages, and developing distinct lifestyles and religious and culture traditions if differing regions.
In 1996 there where 2.1 % or 352,970 Aboriginals in Australia. In New South Wales and Queensland lives over half of Australia’s indigenous people, the rest lives in Western Australia and in the Northern Territory.

Traditionally Aboriginals were hunters and gatherers who moved with the seasons only carrying the tools that were needed for hunting and preparation of foods. Aboriginal society was organized within intricate kinship relationships based on strictly applied laws and observances. Each family was a self-sufficient economic unit and each member had its own specific responsibilities. Every person in the family had an important task, the women gathered berries and fruits and took care of the smallest children and the older ones helped her. The men’s where out hunting and they could be gone for days. If they came home with a lot of food their was often ceremonies where every one in the tribe shared it. While their eating they play the most famous instrument the Didgeridoo. It’s a long wood-pipe which is hollowed out by ants. It’s difficult to play the Didgeridoo because it takes a contiuous flow of air to create the deep echo-sound. So they eat, play the Didgeridoo and the dancers paint their bodies with Dreamtime designs.

In Australia there are a lot of religions 75% says they are Christian, 12% says there not religious at all and the rest is Judaism, Islam and Buddhism. But the Aboriginals has their own central belief system, called The Dreaming. It’s a religion which brings people together in life and after death.

European settlement
In 1770 the Aboriginals got visitors, it was Captain James Cook, a great English navigator, and his crew. They’ve sailed from England all the way to Australia. He was only passing by but when he landed on the east coast he decided to start a colony on the new found island. He sent a message to Britain that he had found land.

The first fleet of ships arrived from Britain in 1778. The people who came wasn’t peacefully, it was prisoners and hundred of soldiers who was going to watch over the lawless. In that time in Britain there where so much thieves and murders that the yale’s didn’t have place for all law breaking people.

The soldiers where not so kind to the prisoners and some of them didn’t make it on the journey till Australia. When every one had settled down it wasn’t much land left for the Aboriginals because the English people had taken control of it. If the Aborigines didn’t move as they were told to they often risk to get murdered. The new settlers had their own farming animals and corps with them to be able to drift a farm. Sheep farming became a success and later on when people discovered the gold, many fortuneseekers came from all over the world.

Disadvantaged between indigenous and non-indigenous Australian’s
There is a lot off different between Indigenous and non-indigenous people when you talk about quality of life. It concerns a lot of arias as health, education, employment, housing and criminal justice systems. The life expectancy in 1996 was 56,9 years for a Indigenous male and 61,7 for a female. Compared with Australian’s it was 75,2 for a male and 81,1 for a female. Both infant mortality and infections diseases is higher for the Indigenous than for the Australian’s.
There are less Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders who finish school, have post-school qualifications and higher education’s compared with other Australian’s.
Less indigenous is in the labour force and the rate off unemployment is higher compared with the Australian’s. There is also more indigenous participation in the dole’ programs. This contributes till fewer people own there own home, and the households is often overcrowded by accepted Australian standards.

More indigenous than the Australian’s is sitting in yale and more of them is young people. The number of death in custody is higher.

The people who came to colonize Australia have taken the indigenous land parcel by parcel. If they didn’t do as they were told they could be killed. The result of the expanding colonial settlement was that indigenous people came to be segregated and denied fundamental human rights and the right to vote and access the social welfare.

Aboriginals today
Nowadays the indigenous isn’t living in the wood or the desert, many of them have got a home in city or towns. Some of the people lives in rural and remote areas some maintaining a largely traditional way of life. Because of the disadvantaged in the society there is big differences between indigenous and non-indigenous Australian’s.
The “new” Aborigines way of living is more like the western style, but some still feel the need to go walkabout sometimes.


Some words from an Aboriginal language
AYAPATHU

Aya = language
onchon = dry season
uchan = young man
chokerre = red
kabam = storm
kamu = blood
kuja = kangaroo
maji = hungry
minha = meat
mayi = food
wanchi = sick


Own thought’s
I think that the Aborigines can be compared with other minorities all over the world, like the Indians in north America or black people in the apartheid system of south Africa. They were once dispossessed from their land by the people who colonized Australia. Indigenous can’t take part in the society like non indigenous because of all the disadvantaged in for example education, health care, housing or employment. Today the indigenous doesn’t even counts. Even if the Aborigines has attract attentions for their different culture and way of living they are not more than a tourist attraction.

Summary
Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders belong to Australia’s indigenous and we think they first arrived for southeast Asia between 50.000 and 60.000 years ago. The Aborigines are well known for their traditionally way of living in harmony with nature. From the beginning they were nomads with the need to “go walkabout”, something they still do.
European settlement of Australia began in 1788 when a British penal colony was established on the east coast. The most important factor for colonizing was Britains need to relieve its overcrowded prisons. This was the beginning of loss of land for indigenous people. Even in the beginning of this century policies and laws forced indigenous people to be segregated and denied fundamental human rights, including the rights to vote and access to social welfare.
Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders today count among the country’s most disadvantaged groups. Australia’s indigenous people suffer from unemployment, below average education, poor health and living conditions, and exces...

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Källhänvisning

Frida Dahlberg [2003-04-13]   Aboriginer
Mimers Brunn [Online]. http://mimersbrunn.se/article?id=1986 [2017-06-28]

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